New works in the Blake Archive

The William Blake Archive has recently added a series of thirty-three of Blake’s water colour illustrations to the Bible. This series, which comprises scenes from the New Testament, supplements the series of Old Testament paintings that were included on the site in March 2010.

Most of the illustrations were painted for Thomas Butts between 1800 and 1805, although two of them – The Whore of Babylon and The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins – date from 1809 and c. 1825 respectively.

This new series means that fifty-three of Blake’s biblical illustrations are now available on the Blake Archive. Blake painted over 135 such illustrations for Thomas Butts in tempera and watercolour between 1799 and 1805, the earlier illustrations apparently being in tempera on canvas or copper before he turned to watercolour. They include some of his most famous images, such as The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed in the Sun and Jacob’s Dream.

The paintings are listed on the Blake Archive under Water Color Drawings Illustrating the Bible.

 

Samuel Palmer and the Valley of Vision

Today is the anniversary of the birth of the artist Samuel Palmer (1805-1881), a landscape artist and writer who befriended William Blake through their joint acquaintance with John Linnell. Born in London, he had no formal schooling and was largely self-taught as a painter, demonstrating the influence of Joseph Mallard William Turner in some of his earliest paintings.

After meeting Blake in 1824, he became associated with the Ancients, sometimes called the Shoreham Ancients because of Palmer’s residence in the village, and his art of the following years was greatly inspired by Blake. He married Linnell’s daughter, Hannah, though relations with his father-in-law were not always happy, and from the 1830s his art became more conventional, though his later landscapes met with critical success. After his death, his reputation declined, although from the 1920s onwards his Shoreham paintings inspired a number of artists such as Graham Sutherland and Ruthven Todd.

Although the exact date when Palmer first met Blake is not known, the meeting was of profound significance to Palmer, who later wrote to Alexander Gilchrist:

I can never forget the evening when Mr. Linnell took me to Blake’s house, nor the quiet hours passed with him in the examination of antique gems, choice pictures, and Italian prints of the sixteenth century… His eye was the finest I ever saw: brilliant, but not roving, clear and intent, yet susceptible; it flashed with genius, or melted in tenderness. It could also be terrible. Cunning and falsehood quailed under it, but it was never busy with them. It pierced them, and turned away. (Gilchrist 302)

Palmer began to visit Blake regularly in 1824, quickly becoming friends with the older artist, and Palmer’s son wrote of him that “No one else was affected by Blake in the same way, to the same extent, or so permanently” as his father (cited in Bentley, 403). Blake probably first accompanied Palmer to the house of the young artist’s grandfather in Shoreham around September 1825, and over the following years Palmer most began to demonstrate the influence of Blake’s art, in particular after Blake’s illustrations to Thornton’s Virgil, in a series of paintings such as Landscape, Girl Standing (1826), Coming from Evening Church (1830), and Harvest Moon (c. 1833).

After Blake’s death, Palmer, along with Linnell, became one of the most important sources of information about Blake to a later generation, spending many evenings in discussion with the Gilchrists. In a letter reprinted by Gilchrist, Palmer summed up his feelings thus:

Blake, once known, could never be forgotten… He was energy itself, and shed around him a kindling influence; an atmosphere of life, full of the ideal. To walk with him in the country was to perceive the soul of beauty through the forms of matter. (Gilchrist, 301)

It was Palmer who described Blake as “a man without a mask” although, like Linnell, he was not averse to abetting Gilchrist in suppressing those aspects of Blake which could have been unacceptable to the Victorian public. Nonetheless, he maintained memory of the artist in the decades following Blake’s death when there was no interest among a wider public, and in the twentieth century his adaptation of Blake’s vision became an equally important influence to a new generation of neo-Romantic artists.

(Citations taken from Gilchrist, Alexander. Life of William Blake. Edited by Ruthven Todd. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1945. Image: Coming from Evening Church, 1830, Tate Britain.)

New Ofili show at Tate Britain

The Chris Ofili retrospective at Tate Britain opened on January 27 and runs at Tate until 16 May, 2010.

Ofili, an artist who has been influenced by Blake since the 1980s, has brought together more than 45 paintings as well as drawings and watercolours for the exhibition.

As well as an opportunity to see many of his most famous works, such as No Woman, No Cry (1998), Ofili’s response to the Stephen Lawrence case, and the remarkable Upper Room collection, the new show includes some of his latest paintings that demonstrate the effect of his new surroundings in Trinidad and Tobago.

Many art critics have noted the continuing importance of Blake as one of several influences on Ofili. Tom Lubbock saw the show as one of the strangest examples of Blake’s enduring appeal, while Charlotte Higgins noted the strong connections between Blake’s works and Ofili’s new images of a character he calls “The Healer”. 

The Chris Ofili exhibition runs from 27 January to 16 May, 2010. Entry: £10, concessions £8.50. More details at http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/chrisofili/default.shtm.

Related links: Review of Chris Ofili and Richard Wright.

Chris Ofili and Richard Wright

Two recent exhibitions at Tate Britain have demonstrated the continuing importance of Blake as an influence on contemporary art. The Chris Ofili retrospective opened on January 27 and runs until May 16, 2010, while the winner of the 2009 Turner Prize, Richard Wright, attracted a great deal of admiration with his impressive contribution, a beautiful gold-leaf fresco.

Ofili, also a Turner Prize winner in 1998, has long been interested in Blake, most clearly in two paintings from 1995, Satan (inspired by Blake’s Satan in his Original Glory, c.1805) and Seven Bitches Tossing their Pussies before the Divine Dung (after Four and Twenty Elders Casting their Crowns before the Divine Throne). Neither of these works are present in the current exhibition, which brings together more than 45 paintings as well as pencil drawings and watercolours, but, as a number of critics have noted, Blake’s influence continues to play a role in the development of Ofili’s art.

The most obvious example of this is a print, Siesta of the Soul, produced by Ofili as a limited edition for Tate Britain. With branching tendrils and vines surrounding elegant, handwritten text, this particular work is especially evocative of a page from one of Blake’s illuminated books, comprising a song of innocence or of experience that ends with the lines “shaded but not shrouded, summoning his dancing demons”. As a marriage of image and text, heavenly but with a hint of Blake’s playful diabolism, Ofili’s print is also reminiscent of the Romantic artist in terms of the spray-painted colours that remind me of the colour washes in Blake’s illuminated prophecies. Tom Lubbock has spoken of the works in this retrospective as “an art of luminous colour… of wild imagination”, and this is certainly true of the best of Ofili’s paintings.

To concentrate on Blake is, of course, to do a disservice to Ofili. His new surroundings in Trinidad and Tobago (the artist left London in 2005) inspire the latest paintings with a rich and luscious beauty, but Charlotte Higgins is certainly correct to see something of Blake in another of his recent works, The Healer, in which an uncanny figure devours vivid, yellow blooms. Personally, the highlight of the show for me was an opportunity to see The Upper Room, a recreation of his deservedly famous exhibition which ran at Tate throughout 2006, thirteen rhesus macaque monkeys depicted in gloriously competing colours.

Richard Wright has been creating site-specific art works for many years, often intricate paintings that are then erased. Sometimes those installations are discreet and delicate, such as the alcove shown as part of an exhibition at the Gagosian Gallery in 2008, but his major untitled piece for the 2009 Turner Prize was spectacular, an exquisite gold-leaf fresco that dominated the room in which it was displayed at Tate Britain.

The painstaking methods used by Wright to transfer the fresco to the wall, as well as the subtlety of effects achieved, has won him acclaim from usually sceptical commentators who regard the Turner Prize as little more than a freak show. Similarly, the transience of the work, now whitewashed over (so that, ironically, it remains as an archeological layer somewhere beneath the current Ofili exhibits), draws attention to what Wright has identified as the fragility of experience in his paintings.

Wright has frequently mentioned his admiration for Blake, telling interviewers that he often travelled down from his home in Glasgow to see the Blakes and Turners housed at Tate Britain, an experience that often left him both exhausted and elated. The influence of Blake, as well as Turner’s voluminous light and colour, is evident in the fresco (which, even though it no longer exists, I cannot help but think of in the present tense). The initial experience is overwhelming, a balanced chaos, but the painting it brought to mind most for me was Blake’s 1808 A Vision of the Last Judgement, that imposing mandala of the end of days in which damned and saved fall and rise around a central pillar of heavenly and infernal judgement, eternally circulating between paradise and earth. Wright’s work brings with it none of the overt Christian morality attached to Blake’s subject; rather, formal motifs repeat and circulate, creating a vision of the secular sublime.

The Chris Ofili exhibition runs from 27 January to 16 May, 2010. Entry: £10, concessions £8.50. More details at http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/chrisofili/default.shtm.